Brassica rapa oleifera. This chapter discusses these two crops together because they have many similarities to one another. wild mustard. Cultivars of wild mustard include many garden vegetables such as turnips, one of the earliest known cultivated crops. Rimmer, in Advances in Agronomy, 1993. wild rutabaga. These vegetables (Fig. In: Proceeding of the first international symposium on Chinese cabbage. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Brassica rapa are members of the crucifer family plants, which is close to cabbage and broccoli (4). Marjorie A. Hoy, in Insect Molecular Genetics (Fourth Edition), 2019. Brassica rapa is a crop species of economic importance. The cabbage white butterfly population attacking canola (Brassica rapa and B. napus) over the past 30 years in north central states of the USA diverged phenotypically relative to a population reared on radish (Raphanus sativus) (Sikkink et al., 2017). Brassica rapa is a type of plant that has yellow flowers. Sci Agr Sin 14:90–95, Li CW (1981b) The origin, evolution, taxonomy, and hybridization of Chinese cabbage. Swedes and turnips are botanically biennial herbs, but both are cultivated as annual root crops for both animal and human consumption. Euphytica 81:71–77, Sun VG (1946) The evaluation of taxonomic characters of cultivated, Suwabe K, Tsukazaki H, Iketani H, Hatakeyama K, Fujimura M et al (2003) Identification of two loci for resistance to clubroot (, Suwabe K, Tsukazaki H, Iketani H, Hatakeyama K, Kondo M et al (2006) Simple sequence repeat-based comparative genomics between, Suzuki G, Kai N, Hirose T, Fukui K, Nishio T et al (1999) Genomic organization of the S locus: identification and characterization of genes in SLG/SRK region of S9 haplotype of, Takayama S, Isogai A, Tsukamoto C, Ueda Y, Hinata K et al (1987) Sequences of S-glycoproteins, products of the, Takuno S, Kawahara T, Ohnishi O (2007) Phylogenetic relationships among cultivated types of, Tomlinson JA (1987) Epidemiology and control of virus diseases of vegetables. of male sterile AB line. 2011; Geng et al. HortScience 105:571–573, Provvidente R (1981) Sources of resistance to turnip mosaic virus in Chinese cabbage. Brassica rapa . Euphytica 69:103–108, Yoshikawa H (1993) Studies on breeding of clubroot resistance in cole crops. This oilseed crop was first introduced in Canada and grown at a commercial scale during the Second World War. These changes are attributed to adaptation to high nutrient and abundant resources (over half a million acres in North Dakota) rather than undergoing genetic bottlenecks due to pesticide applications. The allelic interactions at the S locus are dominant, codominant, or recessive depending on the alleles involved. Dissecting the genomes of crop plants to improve breeding potential. Cultivated in the Orient mainly for its oil-rich seeds. Brassica rapa (2n = 20, genome AA) is potentially valuable in Brassica breeding because it is one of the ancestor species of the allotetraploid species Brassica napus (2n = 38, genome AACC) and Brassica juncea (2n = 36, genome AABB) and recently has been used to generate synthetic allohexaploid Brassica (Ge et al. Currently, most of the canola grown in North American countries is hybrid cultivars. Turnip (Brassica rapa) is an important crop in a wide area around different places of the world. The citation form at the foot of the page will show how to cite the piece from the electronic encyclopedia. Proceedings of first international symposium. The essential combination of economically competitive technologies, formulation of compatible food products and satisfactory scientific data for regulatory approval is needed for C/RS proteins to succeed as an ingredient in consumer foods. It belongs to the genus Brassica, tribe Brassiceae of the family Brassicaceae. Acta Horticulturae Sinica 19(4):333–340, Keck A, Finley J (2004) Cruciferous vegetables: cancer protective mechanisms of glucosinolate hydrolysis products and selenium. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees. It belongs to the genus Brassica, tribe Brassiceae of the family Brassicaceae. Glucosinolates have an anti-inflammatory activity and has been linked to the reduction of several types of cancer (Kim et al., 2014). Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. The swede (Brassica napus L. var. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Traditional rapeseed and mustard seeds contain a high level of erucic fatty acid in oil (> 40% of the total fatty acids) and a high level of glucosinolates in seed meal (> 100 μmol g− 1). To date, there has been limited effort to improve the C/RS protein quality or quantity through plant breeding compared to the efforts to improve oil quality and yield. The oil made from the seed is sometimes also called canola or colza, which is one reason why it is sometimes confused with … Chinese savoy is another Oriental form. The sauerkraut can then be stored at refrigeration temperature before packaging and distribution for extended times, and sauerkraut/kimchi shelf life is typically between 6 and 12 months, and can reach up to 2 years if canned (Plengvidhya, Breidt, Lu, & Fleming, 2007). rapifera) both belong to the family Cruciferae. 150.95.24.88. Impact on pasture These species are regularly grazed and some are in fact commonly sown as fodder crops, but all can sometimes be toxic to stock, which is why they can be a problem in pasture. Brassica definition, any plant belonging to the genus Brassica,of the mustard family, including many economically important vegetables, as cabbage, kale, broccoli, … Furthermore, some investigations have determined a positive action in the antioxidant system reducing the peroxidation of lipids by the increase of glutathione and catalase (Dixon, 2007; Lim, 2015). Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center, Shanhua, Tainan, pp 3–10, Liao Y, Song M, Wang H, Xu D, Wang X (2012) Glucosinolate profile and accumulation in, Lichter R (1982) Induction of haploid plants from isolated pollen of, Linnaeus C (1753) Species plantarum, 1st edn. The name Brassica rapa might be unfamiliar, but most Singaporeans will likely have a favourite vegetable from this species. in diameter, should be used (Figure 1.27). Brassicaor Cruciferous vegetables are the most important genus of the Brassicaceae family and consist of thirty-seven different species. Commonly known as the mustard family, Brassicaceae contains some 338 genera and more than 3,700 species of flowering plants distributed throughout the world. Shredded cabbage contains about 5 × 106 cfu/g of total aerobes and less than 102 cfu/g of fungi (Plengvidhya, Breidt, & Fleming, 2004). A study with a wide array of kimchi samples demonstrated that salt concentration, fermentation duration, and manufacturing processes (home-made vs industrial) all contribute to microbiota profiles and successions (Lee, Song, Jung, Lee, & Chang, 2017). Rapeseed includes the Brassica oilseed crop species Brassica napus and Brassica rapa, while Brassica juncea is commonly called mustard. Not affiliated These species are native to Mediterranean and Western Europe and they are produced in small quantities in most regions of the world (Dixon, 2007). See Appendix Table 9 for the conversion of Imperial to metric can sizes (Table 1.38). field mustard. These processes give good guidelines for processing, but should always be verified by a competent thermal process authority for individual products and recipes. Leaves are then shredded and placed into water with salt that prevents growth of undesirable microorganisms (Peñas et al., 2017). Brassica rapa is a plant species growing in various widely cultivated forms including the turnip; napa cabbage, bomdong, bok choy, and rapini; and Brassica rapa subsp. Filling and Exhausting. In this chapter, as the start of the book, we will introduce the origin, evolution history, diversified morphotypes, and features for breeding application of B. rapa, as well as its investigation progresses in disease resistances, quality improvements focusing on glucosinolate contents and creatings of new materials. sylvestris (L.) Janchen (B. campestris L., p.p. Examples of microorganisms reported to be present in Kimchi, Sauerkraut, and other fermented vegetables are shown in Table 1. Worldwide, this meal is the second most important (after soybean) economical protein source used in animal feed. Table 1. Canola/rapeseed (Brassica napus, Brassica rapa, and Brassica juncea of canola quality) is the world’s second-largest oilseed crop. 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