He will not be able to gain any knowledge from her. Yet all true principles can potentially be helpful in supporting and enhancing an individual’s life. So this makes his ethical system a sort of combination of deontology and consequentialism: deontology at the base, with consequentialism added on as one of the duties. (Please note here that intellectual goals can serve one’s life in very indirect ways, as in many cases of increasing one’s knowledge of highly abstract, theoretical topics.) According to Objectivism, virtues are not fundamentally traits of character, (as virtue ethicists hold.) Even though ethical theories have different reasons for application, there is an overlap in these theories that result in similar conduct in an ethical situation. It takes “life” and “value” as the fundamental ethical concepts. To that extent, he replaces his life–his pursuit of self-sustaining values by his own rational judgment–with a self-destructive activity: the acquiring of the unearned by the maintenance of falsehoods in the minds of others. In trying to kill and loot the woman, the man was trying to gain value from her mind. In a competitive market, the continued existence of the company depends on the good, self-interested choices of the company’s management. Later advocates have included W.D. Coercion should not be taken to include psychological pressure, social ostracism, or the refusal to do business with someone. Morality is the branch of philosophy that deals with all freely chosen human actions. If he’s in a society, he must then engage in an increasingly desperate struggle to obscure the truth and prevent others from realizing that he’s their enemy. 4/16/2013 This sort of deontology is most often discussed and advocated by academic libertarians, both right and left. So it hasn’t been explored, labeled and categorized to the degree that consequentialism and deontology have. ), So how does one know the boundaries between “too much” or “too little” and “the right amount”? So if we wanted an oranges-to-oranges comparison of government and private research, it would perhaps be instructive to compare the advancements (per capita) in agricultural technology originating in the Soviet Union and in the US, between 1920 and 1990. Moreover, even as principles of action, virtues are not the most fundamental starting points of OEE. Kant determines that there are categorical imperatives that every person should follow, and every person should follow them regardless how it will affect the person or other. So they were discouraged from doing anything that might disrupt the precarious status quo. If we switch Classic Utilitarianism from act consequentialism to rule consequentialism, while keeping its other categories and its axiology, we get a theory that could be referred to as “Classic Rule Utilitarianism.”, Finally, if we take CU and only change its axiology, we get a different theory. This contrasts sharply with Ayn Rand’s understanding of the rational egoist as the independent-minded producer of values. In deontology, it is to follow the rules presupposed by moral absolutes. Means are tools, with specific purposes. All of his relationships with others are tainted with fear and mistrust by his fundamental relationship with them: master and slave. We can observe that societies where rights are systematically violated are poorer, more stagnant and generally worse off than those where rights are more protected. However, consequentialism and virtue ethics need not be entirely antagonistic. He has been functioning mostly as a parasite. However, consequentialism focuses on judging the moral worth of the results of the actions and deontological ethics focuses on judging the actions themselves. In this essay I am going to explain the differences between the ethical schools of consequentialism, deontology, and virtue ethics and argue that in my opinion deontology is the most reasonable theory of the three. HIRE verified writer $35.80 for a 2-page paper. For deontology, look up the relevant thinkers, like Kant, Ross and Nozick, as well as the entry on Deontological Ethics. (6), A person who achieves virtue or arete in all the various areas of life, arrives at a condition often called “happiness” or “flourishing.” The Greek term for this condition is eudaimonia. They are to be taken care of–or disposed of–by their “owners.” This makes the slaves very bad and unreliable workers, and it is why the slaves of the antebellum South were notorious for being irresponsible and unmotivated. So it doesn’t necessarily seem right to morally judge a decision, that was made at a given time and with a limited state of knowledge, by all of the actual consequences that followed. If you want even more, look at my Books and Links page. Consequentialism holds that the consequences of one’s actions are the basis for moral judgment. He said that he was miserable while committing his crimes, and that he’s happier in jail. (8) Coercion, in the Objectivist usage, specifically means physical force or the threat of physical force by one or more persons. Basically, Objectivist Ethical Egoism says that you should do certain things, because those things actually support and/or enrich your own life. The life as a human being for which moral principles are required, is a life of conscious value pursuit: that is, it is the deliberate choosing and thoughtful pursuit of goals that sustain oneself. Two people competing for the same job in a free market don’t have a conflict of rational interests, because a rational interest in the job entails the acceptance of what makes the job possible: a company with a specific budget to pay employees, free to select among potential employees who offer to work there. That way lies a dead end. She has chosen becoming an architect as her goal. Intro to Ethics Paper #2 Deontology vs. Consequentialism Even though Deontology and Consequentialism can be extremely similar, both contain key factors that make each idea unique and very different. Slavery destroyed their ability to take care of themselves, so they lost the motivation to act in a way consistent with self-responsibility. Mill, enthusiastically endorsed Auguste Comte’s idea that altruism–“living for others”–was central to personal morality. And the three major approaches to ethics - virtue ethics, deontology and consequentialism - can then be understood as trying to ground our moral duties in one or other of those components. If an individual consistently applies these principles in his life, then they can be “automatized” and can be said to form a basic part of the individual’s character. Sometimes, it may appear that both these theories simply arrive at the same conclusion by way of different paths. Ethical Theory Comparison Chart Principles of physics and electronics can enable the development of life-saving medical technology, the deployment of satellites for instant long-distance communication, etc. According to Aristotle, it is the attainment of happiness, for it is that alone that we So by the nature of his position, the dictator must surround himself with fellow power-lusters. Are practices that produce less goodness wrong practices, or merely sub-optimal but permissible right practices? One should avoid contradictions in one’s thinking, since holding contradictory beliefs is the violation of reason. ( Log Out /  Ultimately, consequentialism provides the, distinct ethical theories have come to dominate the contemporary debate: outcome ethics (or consequentialism), duty ethics (or deontology) and virtue ethics. Thus, it is in the rational interests of each applicant that the company choose the best fit for the job, even if that applicant is not himself. Though eudaimonia is sometimes translated as “happiness,” it does not merely denote an emotional state or subjective feeling. Thus an organization or corporation can have rights insofar as its individual owners have rights. I’m working on an assignment and I’d really appreciate if you shared some references. Typically, agent-centered theories like Kant’s include patient-centered duties, while patient-centered theories like Nozick’s often don’t include agent-centered duties. The characteristic and necessary mode of human survival, which is self-sustaining action (i.e. So what actually differentiates moral principles from the principles of other fields? The independent egoist genuinely pursues his self-interest. When comparing the similarities and differences between virtue theory, utilitarianism, and deontology we find that they all deal with how one judge’s morality and ethics. Ayn Rand described each of these virtues as the recognition of certain fundamental facts about reality, human consciousness, and one’s own nature as a human being: Independence is your recognition of the fact that yours is the responsibility of judgment and nothing can help you escape it–that no substitute can do your thinking, as no pinch-hitter can live your life…, Honesty is the recognition of the fact that the unreal is unreal and can have no value, that neither love nor fame nor cash is a value if obtained by fraud–that an attempt to gain a value by deceiving the mind of others is an act of raising your victims to a position higher than reality, where you become a pawn of their blindness, a slave of their non-thinking and their evasions, while their intelligence, their rationality, their perceptiveness become the enemies you have to dread and flee…, Integrity is the recognition of the fact that you cannot fake your consciousness, just as honesty is the recognition of the fact that you cannot fake existence–that man is an indivisible entity, an integrated unit of two attributes: of matter and consciousness, and that he may permit no breach between body and mind, between action and thought, between his life and his convictions…, Justice is the recognition of the fact that you cannot fake the character of men as you cannot fake the character of nature…, Productiveness is…your recognition of the fact that you choose to live–that productive work is the process by which man’s consciousness controls his existence, a constant process of acquiring knowledge and shaping matter to fit one’s purpose…, Pride is the recognition of the fact that you are your own highest value and, like all of man’s values, it has to be earned…, (Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged, (50th Anniversary Ed.) Moral goodness may be identified with pleasure, preference satisfaction, justice, beauty, knowledge, wisdom, honor, peace, etc. Whereas other sorts of immorality primarily harm the immoral agent, leaving others basically free to function, initiations of force attack the root of the victims’ survival by subverting their ability to act rationally. The study of ethics spreads around three areas; Meta-ethics, Normative-ethics, and Applied-ethics. (9) Note also that earlier, in starting my discussion of principles, I said that Objectivist Ethical Egoism was “the application of Objectivist epistemology to the fundamental problem of how to live as a human in reality as it is.” This remains true. Had the “master” not enslaved the other person, both individuals could have focused exclusively on long-term survival–that is, on making their own lives richer and more robust. Virtue can be described as the excellence of character. It is not a superficial habit or routine, but permeates every aspect of a person’s character, including his emotions, desires and intuitions. Too much confidence, and he is rash and foolish. This cycle builds on itself and is repeated in a progressive, escalating fashion. One of the most well known forms of consequentialism is utilitarianism which … For that we need a separate theory of moral goodness, more technically called a “value theory” or “axiology.”. As he commits more and more crimes, the consequences pile up and the growing evidence makes it harder and harder for him to maintain the ruse. In this essay, I will more concentrate on consequentialism, especially utilitarianism, and deontology to make compare and contrast analysis of each other and how each case works differently and causes divergent result in the same scenario. It has also been heavily supported by Alasdair MacIntyre. The slave-holding South was stagnant and poor compared to the free North just before the American Civil War. So to understand modern virtue ethics, it will help tremendously to understand Aristotle’s ethical views. Ethics can be referred to as well-based standards, He began his argument from the premise that a moral theory must be grounded in the unconditional goodness of a good will. The direct sources for the first three approaches are mostly in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. I sent you an email response. Rather, he values the spiritual qualities that they have or have the potential to develop. A rational person holds his basic goals in the form of abstractions. If my goal is to do this, then I have my basic normative guideline: I should launch him to that height, speed and direction. Cultural contextualist theories see virtues as taking different forms depending on cultural tradition. This good judgment will lead the company management to choose the applicant who’s the best fit for the job. The harmony of rational interests is a feature of a life of reason, persuasion and voluntary trade. To the extent that an individual attempts to gain values by force, he generates an inherent conflict within his chosen means of survival, making it self-undermining. We see these traits–paranoia, fakery and egomania–when we look at dictators in history, like Joseph Stalin, Nikita Khrushchev, Muammar Gaddafi, Saddam Hussein and Kim Jong Il. Virtue theory emphasizes character traits rather than the rules or consequences while deontology is described as an action that is right only if it is in accordance with a moral rule or principle. Their relation to the acts associated with corruption and bribery Consequentialism entails how human practices and their behavior are judged based on their consequences or their aftermath. ], Values Are Relational, But Not Subjective, Other People as Egoistic Values Versus Other People as Objects of Self-Sacrifice in Ayn Rand’s Philosophy, Why “Selfishness” Doesn’t Properly Mean Being Shortsighted and Harmful to Others, A Refutation of G.E. (“Practice” here is used very broadly to include a specific action, a rule guiding actions, a motive guiding actions, or a virtue of character.) These sorts of theories are called “patient-centered” deontology. This makes eudaimonia a “moralized” or “value-laden” concept, according to virtue ethicists, which must be derived from the virtues. He exists precariously on a razor’s edge: One slip-up could be the end of his freedom or his life. Of course, when Rand says “you cannot fake…” she does not mean that it’s impossible to attempt to fake. It takes action on the basis of true principles as the human means to the achievement of values. People have a good will when they consciously respect the moral law, and the moral law is a rational agent ought to do, that is, one’s duty, which Kant insisted on being universal, but, people. So they couldn’t earn genuine self-esteem. Utilitarianism (also called consequentialism) is a moral theory developed and refined in the modern world in the writings of Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) and John Stuart Mill (1806-1873). (Allan Gotthelf, A Companion to Ayn Rand, p. 88). She is working toward a self-supporting life as an architect, so she exemplifies productiveness. They are regarded as moral-political principles because they serve the goal of human life. Classic Utilitarianism was advocated by such philosophers as Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill. It is one of the three normative ethics. 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