Nanjing (listen), alternatively romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with 11 districts, Nanjing has an administrative area of 6,600 km (2,500 sq mi) and a total population of 8,505,500 as of 2019 . Im Dezember 1937 eroberten japanische Kräfte die damalige Hauptstadt der Republik China Nanking, nachdem sich die chinesischen Verteidiger chaotisch aus der Stadt zurückgezogen hatten. [90] The heavy smog heavily polluted central and southern Jiangsu Province, especially in and around Nanjing,[91] with its AQI pollution Index at "severely polluted" for five straight days and "heavily polluted" for nine. However, the economic developments were almost wiped out by the Taiping Rebellion's catastrophe. [29], A number of sculptural ensembles of that era, erected at the tombs of royals and other dignitaries, have survived (in various degrees of preservation) in Nanjing's northeastern and eastern suburbs, primarily in Qixia and Jiangning District. Many traditional festivals and customs were observed in the old times, which included climbing the City Wall on January 16, bathing in Qing Xi on March 3, hill hiking on September 9 and others (the dates are in Chinese lunar calendar). Among them, iron and sulfur reserves make up 40 percent of those of Jiangsu province. It was a decade of extraordinary growth with an enormous amount of construction. ... As the capital of the wealthy eastern coastal province of Jiangsu, Nanjing is located in a region rich in economic and technological activity. Nanjing South Railway Station, which is one of the 5 hub stations on Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway, has officially been claimed as the largest railway station in Asia and the second largest in the world in terms of GFA (Gross Floor Area). Since then, the city experienced destruction and renewal many times. Zhang, Chunhou. In the near future, Such Yangtze Crossings will be added as follow :Jianning West Rd. [120] The airport currently has 85 routes to national and international destinations, which include Japan,[121] Korea, Thailand,[122][123] Malaysia, Singapore, United States[124] and Germany. 5The claimed province of Taiwan no longer have any internal division announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual jurisdiction. The following decade is known as the Nanking decade. Nanjing has served as the capital city of Jiangsu province since the establishment of the People's Republic of China. Its gymnasium has capacity of 13,000, and natatorium of capacity 3,000. The OECD estimated the encompassing metropolitan area at the time as 11.7 million. The siege lasted almost three weeks, beginning on August 24. Vaughan, C. Edwin. At first, the landless peasants benefited from it, then the senior officials and aristocratic families. The craft industries, by contrast, had a faster growth. [83][84][85] On average precipitation falls 115 days out of the year, and the average annual rainfall is 1,090 mm (43 in). However another version held by most historians, is … The city, also spelled Nanjing or Nan-ching, was founded in the 8 th century BC. As of 2010[update], it operated six public ports and three industrial ports. [32] Possibly the best preserved of them is the ensemble of the Tomb of Xiao Xiu (475–518), a brother of Emperor Wu of Liang.[33][34]. [23] In the late period of Shang dynasty, Taibo of Zhou came to Jiangnan and established Wu state, and the first stop is in Nanjing area according to some historians based on discoveries in Taowu and Hushu culture. History of Nanking Massacre. [58], Zhu Yousong, however, fared a lot worse than his ancestor Zhu Yuanzhang three centuries earlier. A lot of government buildings, residential houses, and modern public infrastructures were built. Yuan demanded the capital be Beijing (closer to his power base). [49] The succeeding Xuande Emperor remained in Beijing, so the aforementioned Nanjing government eventually became a permanent institution. [79] The KMT government retreated to Canton (Guangzhou) until October 15, Chongqing until November 25, and then Chengdu before retreating to the island of Taiwan on December 10 where Taipei was proclaimed the temporary capital of the Republic of China. The bus network, which is currently run by three companies since 2011, provides more than 370 routes covering all parts of the city and suburban areas. Expressways {G+XXxx (National Express, 国家高速), S+XX (省级高速)}: National Highway {G1xx (which starts from Beijing), G2xx (north-south), G3xx (west-east)}: The city also boasts an efficient public transport network, which mainly consists of bus, taxi and metro systems. [citation needed] The area was successively part of Kuaiji, Zhang and Danyang prefectures in Qin and Han dynasty, and part of Yangzhou region which was established as the nation's 13 supervisory and administrative regions in the 5th year of Yuanfeng in Han dynasty (106 BC). The New York Times bestselling account of one of history's most brutal -- and forgotten -- massacres, when the Japanese army destroyed China's capital city on the eve of World War II In December 1937, one of the most horrific atrocities in the long annals of wartime barbarity occurred. [55], Over two centuries after the removal of the capital to Beijing, Nanjing was destined to become the capital of a Ming emperor one more time. [76] The total death toll, including estimates made by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal after the atomic bombings, was between 300,000 and 350,000. | Yoshida, Takashi | ISBN: 9780195180961 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. It is well-known that people in Nanjing like eating radish. The Yangtze River flows past the west side and then the north side of Nanjing City, while the Ningzheng Ridge surrounds the north, east and south sides of the city. American History; Middle Ages; Hollywood; Archaeology; 24 Images of the Brutal Nanking Massacre By Jacob Miller. [21] The city also served as the seat of the rebel Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (1853–64) and the Japanese puppet regime of Wang Jingwei (1940–45) during the Second Sino-Japanese War. On April 23, the Communist People's Liberation Army (PLA) captured Nanjing. In recent years, many night-life options have opened up in Catherine Park as well as in shopping malls such as IST in Xinjiekou and Kingmo near Baijai Lake metro station. Most of the minority nationalities resided in Jianye District, comprising 9.13 percent of the district's population.[105]. [31] Assuming an average Nanjing household consisted of about 5.1 people, the city had more than 1.4 million residents. With the redolent atmosphere of Ian Rankin and the spine-chilling characters of Thomas Harris, Mo Hayder's The Devil of Nanking, takes the reader on an electrifying literary ride from the palatial apartments of yakuza kingpins to deep inside the secret history of one of the twentieth century's most brutal events: the Nanking Massacre. Nanjing is at the intersection of the Yangtze River, an east–west water transport artery, and the Nanjing–Beijing railway, a north–south land transport artery, hence the name “door of the east and west, throat of the south and north”. Tunnel, Xianxin Rd. This is the earliest written record of Nanjing as a city. Tunnel, Heyan Rd. In the 1960s, the first Nanjing Yangtze River Bridge was completed, and served as the only bridge crossing over the Lower Yangtze in eastern China at that time. The current economy of the city is basically newly developed based on the past. Nankin Jiken. Inside the city of Nanjing, there are 230 km (140 mi) of highways, with a highway coverage density of 3.38 kilometers per hundred square kilometers (5.44 mi/100 sq mi). Nanjing Museum, formerly known as National Central Museum during ROC period, is the first modern museum and remains as one of the leading museums in China having 400,000 items in its permanent collection. [99], At the time of the 2010 census, the total population of the City of Nanjing was 8.005 million. The sparse population led to land as royal rewards were granted for rules’ people. Tunnel, Fifth Nanjing Yangtze Bridge. Some notable high schools in Nanjing are: Jinling High School, Nanjing Foreign Language School, High School Affiliated to Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing No.1 High School, Nanjing Zhonghua High School, Caulfield Grammar School (Nanjing Campus). Its reserves of strontium rank first in East Asia and the South East Asia region. [22] In English, the spelling Nanking has been traditional until Pinyin, developed in the 1950s and internationally adopted in the 1980s, standardized the spelling as "Nanjing". Chiang was born in the neighboring province of Zhejiang and the general area had strong popular support for him. For other uses, see, Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city in Jiangsu, People's Republic of China, Location of Nanjing City jurisdiction in Jiangsu. Through readings of historical account by actors and the testimony of survivors, the events of the Nanjing Massacre are recounted. The birth rate was 8.86 percent and the death rate was 6.88 percent. 1Special economic-zone Cities. [25] Later in 473 BC, the State of Yue conquered Wu and constructed the fort of Yuecheng (越城) on the outskirts of the present-day Zhonghua Gate. Nanjing first became a state capital in AD 229, when the state of Eastern Wu founded by Sun Quan during the Three Kingdoms period relocated its capital to Jianye (建業), the city extended on the basis of Jinling Yi in AD 211. However, the Qing Empire controlled large regions to the north, so revolutionaries asked Yuan Shikai to replace Sun as president in exchange for the abdication of Puyi, the last emperor. [95] The smog dissipated 12 December. The two roads cross in the city center, Xinjiekou. [11] Nanjing is also considered a Global City with a "Beta" classification, together with Chongqing, Hangzhou and Tianjin according to GaWC[12] ,and ranked as one of the world's top 100 cities in the Global Financial Centres Index.[13]. [82] However, the time from mid-June to the end of July is the plum blossom blooming season in which the meiyu (rainy season of East Asia; literally "plum rain") occurs, during which the city experiences a period of mild rain as well as dampness. In the past 20 years, several commercial streets have been developed, hence the nightlife has become more diverse: there are shopping malls opening late in the Xinjiekou CBD, as well as in and around major residential areas throughout the city. Koxinga's forces were defeated and "slipped back" (Wakeman's phrase) to the ships which had brought them.[67]. The YOG aims to spread the Olympic spirit and encourage sports participation. The old Mission property would become the No. The city was razed after the Sui took it over. Nanjing is ranked the 88th QS Best Student City in 2019. Nov 22, 2019 - Explore Sun Li-jen's board "Nanking Massacre" on Pinterest. In addition, it has several natural hot springs such as Tangshan Hot Spring in Jiangning and Tangquan Hot Spring in Pukou. In 1927, the Kuomintang (KMT; Nationalist Party) under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek again established Nanjing as the capital of the Republic of China, and this became internationally recognized once KMT forces took Beijing in 1928. Die Schlacht von Nanking war eine Schlacht des Zweiten Japanisch-Chinesischen Kriegs. Into the first half of the twentieth century after the establishment of ROC, Nanjing gradually shifted from being a production hub towards being a heavy consumption city, mainly because of the rapid expansion of its wealthy population after Nanjing once again regained the political spotlight of China. The restaurant specializing in Jinling cuisine is Ma Xiang Xing (马祥兴菜馆). Nanjing's airport, Lukou International Airport NKG, serves both national and international flights. Many China-based leading firms such as Huawei, ZTE and Lenovo have key R&D institutes in the city. It has also been awarded the title of 2008 Habitat Scroll of Honor of China, Special UN Habitat Scroll of Honor Award and National Civilized City. Ein Artikel in der Japan Times meint, dass dessen Gegenwart es Revisionisten erlaube, eine „Saat des Zweifels zu säen“ über die Genauigkeit der gesamten Sammlung. [10] Nanjing has been ranked seventh in the evaluation of "Cities with Strongest Comprehensive Strength" issued by the National Statistics Bureau, and second in the evaluation of cities with most sustainable development potential in the Yangtze River Delta. The court of Da Chu, a short-lived puppet state established by the Jurchens, and the court of Song were once in the city. Wutaishan Sports Center was established in 1952 and it was one of the oldest and most advanced stadiums in early time of People's Republic of China. [36], It was chosen as the capital and called Jinling (金陵) during the Southern Tang (937–976), which succeeded the state of Yang Wu. The city has a number of other names, and some historical names are now used as names of districts of the city; among them there is the name Jiangning or Kiangning (江寧), whose former character Jiang (江, Yangtze) is the former part of the name Jiangsu and latter character Ning (寧, simplified form 宁; 'Peace') is the short name of Nanjing. [94] Between 3:00 pm, 3 December and 2:00 pm, 4 December local time, several expressways from Nanjing to other Jiangsu cities were closed, stranding dozens of passenger buses in Zhongyangmen bus station. Home » History of Nanking Massacre. In 317, remnants of the Jin court, as well as nobles and wealthy families, fled from the north to the south and reestablished the Jin court in Nanjing, which was then called Jiankang (建康), replacing Luoyang. [7], Situated in the Yangtze River Delta region, Nanjing has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having served as the capital of various Chinese dynasties, kingdoms and republican governments dating from the 3rd century to 1949,[8] and has thus long been a major center of culture, education, research, politics, economy, transport networks and tourism, being the home to one of the world's largest inland ports. In 1927, the Nationalist government proposed a comprehensive planning proposal, the Capital Plan (首都計劃), to reconstruct the war-torn city of Nanjing into a modern capital. During this time, Nanjing was the international hub of East Asia. In the spring, the radish tastes very juicy and sweet. 10 November: City besieged by Manchu forces. As the capital of the brief-lived rebel Taiping Heavenly Kingdom in the mid-19th century, Nanjing was known as Tianjing (天京; '"Heavenly Capital" or "Capital of Heaven"'). When Qing forces led by Zeng Guofan retook the city in 1864, a massive slaughter occurred in the city with over 100,000 estimated to have committed suicide or fought to the death. Dajiaochang Airport is still used as a military air base. THE RAPE OF NANKING is a detailed and well researched chronicle of a situation of man's inhumanity to man and an important lesson in history. [48] The emperor died on 29 May 1425 before this could have taken place,[48][49] so Beijing remained the de facto capital and Nanjing remained the secondary capital. By late 1949, the PLA was pursuing remnants of KMT forces southwards in southern China, and only Tibet and Hainan Island were left. Off the competition fields, an integrated culture and education program focused on discussions about education, Olympic values, social challenges, and cultural diversity. Other museums include the City Museum of Nanjing in the Chaotian Palace, the Oriental Metropolitan Museum,[g] the China Modern History Museum in the Presidential Palace, the Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall, the Taiping Kingdom History Museum, Jiangning Imperial Silk Manufacturing Museum,[h] Nanjing Yunjin Museum, Nanjing City Wall Cultural Museum, Nanjing Customs Museum in Ganxi House,[i] Nanjing Astronomical History Museum, Nanjing Paleontological Museum, Nanjing Geological Museum, Nanjing Riverstones Museum, and other museums and memorials such Zheng He Memorial[j] Jinling Four Modern Calligraphers Memorial.[k]. Nanjing is an important railway hub in eastern China. Nanking in 1927 was a treaty port located on the southern shores of the Yangtze River, a large waterway that separates northern and southern China. [41] According to Odoric of Pordenone, Chilenfu (Nanjing) had 360 stone bridges, which were finer than anywhere else in the world. „Metropole der zehn Dynastien“ (十朝都會  /  十朝都会, Shí Cháo Dūhuì). With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 37 percent in March to 52 percent in August, the city receives 1,926 hours of bright sunshine annually. With Hugo Armstrong, Rosalind Chao, Stephen Dorff, John Getz. The city is 650 km (400 mi) southeast of Luoyang, 900 km (560 mi) south-southeast of Beijing, 270 km (170 mi) west-northwest of Shanghai, and 1,200 km (750 mi) east-northeast of Chongqing. Here is a short list: Former Ministry of Foreign Affairs Buildings, National Revolutionary Army Memorial Cemetery, Gate of Presidential Residence at Purple Mountain, Yuhuatai Memorial Park of Revolutionary Martyrs, Memorial Hall of the Victims in Nanjing Massacre by Japanese Invaders, Zifeng Tower ranks among the tallest buildings in the world, opened for commercial operations in 2010.[145]. Zheng He governed the city with three eunuchs for internal matters and two military noblemen for external matters, awaiting the Hongxi Emperor's return along with the military establishment from the north. In 1937, the Empire of Japan started a full-scale invasion of China after invading Manchuria in 1931, beginning the Second Sino-Japanese War (often considered a theater of World War II). Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959. p. 237, Pelissier, Roger. According to, "There is a long history of growing radish in Nanjing especially the southern suburb. This article incorporates information from the Chinese Wikipedia. It has many important heritage sites, including the Presidential Palace and Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum. Some of the leading art groups of China are based in Nanjing; they include the Qianxian Dance Company, Nanjing Dance Company, Jiangsu Peking Opera Institute and Nanjing Xiaohonghua Art Company among others. As an important regional hub in the Yangtze River Delta, Nanjing is well-connected by over 60 state and provincial highways to all parts of China. The official told his children in Nanjing to prepare to defect to Koxinga which he himself was preparing to do. Nanjing Massacre, conventional Nanking Massacre, also called Rape of Nanjing, (December 1937–January 1938), mass killing and ravaging of Chinese citizens and capitulated soldiers by soldiers of the Japanese Imperial Army after its seizure of Nanjing, China, on December 13, 1937, during the Sino-Japanese War that preceded World War II. "Jiangning" redirects here. The urban area had a population of 6.47 million people. The rebellion destroyed most of the former Ming imperial buildings in the city, including the Porcelain Tower of Nanjing. The annual International Plum Blossom Festival held in Plum Blossom Hill, the largest plum collection in China, attracts thousands of tourists both domestically and internationally. Nanjing High-tech Industrial Development Zone established. All three are significant players economically and politically, Beijing and Shanghai particularly. As a result of political maneuveri… [f], Nanjing borders Yangzhou to the northeast (one town downstream when following the north bank of the Yangtze); Zhenjiang to the east (one town downstream when following the south bank of the Yangtze); and Changzhou to the southeast. (Buch (gebunden)) - portofrei bei A number of huge department stores such as Zhongyang Shangchang sprouted up, attracting merchants from all over China to sell their products in Nanjing. [14] The ratio of college students to total population ranks No.1 among large cities nationwide. It must made more public despite Japan's attempt to cover up the facts of what truly occurred. The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China. [20] Although conquered by the Western Jin dynasty in 280, Nanjing and its neighboring areas had been well cultivated, developing into one of the commercial, cultural and political centers of China during the Eastern Wu. A lack of cold air flow, combined with slow-moving air masses carrying industrial emissions, collected airborne pollutants to form a thick layer of smog over the region. Moreover, the trade in Nanjing was also flourishing. Nanjing University Library is the second largest university libraries in China after Peking University Library, and the fifth largest nationwide, especially in the number of precious collections. [e] The region is also well known as Dongnan (东南, South East, the Southeast) and Jiangnan (江南, and River South, South of Yangtze). The British Royal Navy operated the China Station under Rear Admiral Sir Reginald Tyrwhitt and the United States Navy the Yangtze Patrol; both lasted for around 80 y… Jiangsu Volleyball men and women teams are also traditionally considered as at top level in China volleyball league. When was Nanjing founded? Koxinga's attack on Qing held Nanjing which would interrupt the supply route of the Grand Canal leading to possible starvation in Beijing caused such fear that the Manchus (Tartares) considered returning to Manchuria (Tartary) and abandoning China according to a 1671 account by a French missionary. [132] [27] It was renamed Moling (秣陵) during the reign of the First Emperor of Qin. [126] Nanjing has another airport – Nanjing Ma'an International Airport which temporarily serves as a dual-use military and civil airport. Beset by factional conflicts, his regime could not offer effective resistance to Qing forces, when the Qing army, led by the Manchu prince Dodo approached Jiangnan the next spring. Nanjing has many high-quality universities and research institutes, with the number of universities listed in 100 National Key Universities ranking third, including Nanjing University which has a long history and is among the world top 10 universities ranked by Nature Index. See Template:Administrative divisions of Taiwan instead. Nanjing is connected to the national high-speed railway network by Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway and Shanghai–Wuhan–Chengdu Passenger Dedicated Line, with several more high-speed rail lines under construction. [64], Despite capturing many counties in his initial attack due to surprise and having the initiative, Koxinga announced the final battle in Nanjing in 1659 ahead of time giving plenty of time for the Qing to prepare because he wanted a decisive, single grand showdown like his father succsfully did against the Dutch at the Battle of Liaoluo Bay, throwing away the surprise and initiative which led to its failure. The six dynasties were: Eastern Wu (222–280), Eastern Jin dynasty (317–420) and four southern dynasties (420–589). The Making of the Rape of Nanking: History and Memory in Japan, China, and the United States (Studies of the Weatherhead East Asian Institute, Columbia University.) In East China, in terms of urban population and urban area, the largest city is Shanghai, and the second largest is Nanjing. [125] Lukou Airport was opened on 28 June 1997, replacing Nanjing Dajiaochang Airport as the main airport serving Nanjing. Almost none of them, however, are still celebrated by modern Nanjingese. They are Line 1, Line 2, Line 3, Line 4, Line 10, Line S1, Line S3, Line S7, Line S8 and Line S9. Lexington books. Nanjing is an industrial technology research and development hub, hosting many R&D centers and institutions, especially in areas of electronics technology, information technology, computer software, biotechnology and pharmaceutical technology and new material technology. Nanjing Dashengguan Yangtze River Bridge built. The name Nanjing, which means "Southern Capital", was officially designated for the city during the Ming dynasty, about six hundred years later. It also employs many different style of cooking methods, such as slow cooking, Chinese oven cooking, etc. It has been one of the world's largest cities, enjoying peace and prosperity despite wars and disasters. Jiangsu Suning FC, the football club currently staying in Chinese Super League, is a long-term tenant of Nanjing Olympic Sports Center. [51] In 1441, Emperor Yingzong ordered to not to prefix the word "provisional" (行在) on the Beijing Government seals any longer, while Nanjing's need to prefix "Nanjing" for distinguishing purposes remained. Compared to Wutaishan Sports Center, which the major stadium's capacity is 18,500,[144] Nanjing Olympic Sports Center has a more advanced stadium which is big enough to seat 60,000 spectators. It was home of the admiral Zheng He, who went to sail the Pacific and Indian Oceans, and it was visited by foreign dignitaries, such as a king from Borneo (渤泥; Bóní), who died during his visit to China in 1408. As a major Chinese city, Nanjing is home to many professional sports teams. [137] Boating at night in the river was a main attraction of the city. [139], Nanjing's planned 20,000 seat Youth Olympic Sports Park Gymnasium will be one of the venues for the 2019 FIBA Basketball World Cup.[140]. The airport is connected by a 29-kilometer (18 mi) highway directly to the city center, and is also linked to various intercity highways, making it accessible to the passengers from the surrounding cities. It was renamed Shengzhou (昇州) in the Tang dynasty and resuscitated during the late Tang. Children's Hospital outpatient services increased by 33 percent; general incidence of bronchitis, pneumonia, upper respiratory tract infections significantly increased. The slogan of the 2014 Youth Olympic Games was "Share the Games, Share our Dreams". Nanjing was later the capital city of Danyang Prefecture, and had been the capital city of Yangzhou for about 400 years from late Han to early Tang. The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II is a bestselling 1997 non-fiction book written by Iris Chang about the 1937–1938 Nanking Massacre, the massacre and atrocities committed by the Imperial Japanese Army after it captured Nanjing, then capital of … Meanwhile, a Yangtze River deep-water channel is under construction to enable Nanjing to handle the navigation of 50,000 DWT vessels from the East China Sea. Shortly after the unification of the region, the Western Jin dynasty collapsed. [66] Koxinga's Ming loyalists fought against a majority Han Chinese Bannermen Qing army when attacking Nanjing. [45] It is among the longest surviving city walls in China. Service industries are dominating, accounting for about 60 percent of the GDP of the city, and financial industry, culture industry and tourism industry are top 3 of them. Nach der Schlacht verübten die japanischen Streitkräfte beim Massaker von Nanking zahlreiche Kriegsverbrechen an der chinesischen Zivilbevölkerung. New York: Putnam, 1967. p. 109, Fu Jing-hui, An Introduction of Chinese and Foreign History of War, 2003, p.109–111, Document sent by former Japanese foreign minister. Nanjing University is considered to be one of the top national universities nationwide. Going in the downstream direction, the Yangtze crossings in Nanjing are: Dashengguan Bridge, Line 10 Metro Tunnel, Third Bridge, Nanjing Yangtze River Tunnel (南京长江隧道), First Bridge, Second Bridge and Fourth Bridge,Nanjing Yangtze Tunnel (南京扬子江隧道). [135] Being one of the four ancient capitals of China, Nanjing has always been a cultural center attracting intellectuals from all over the country. Den Protokollen der Tokioter Prozesse zufolge wurden über 200.000, anderen Schätzungen zufolge über 300.000 Zivilisten und Kriegsgefangene ermordet sowie rund 20.000 Mädchen und Frauen vergewaltigt. [75] Even children, the elderly, and nuns are reported to have suffered at the hands of the Imperial Japanese Army. Daher hat Nanjing im Chinesischen auch die Bezeichnung „Antikes Kapitol der sechs Dynastien“ (六朝古都, Liù Cháo Gǔdū) bzw. The area around Nanjing is called Xiajiang (下江, Downstream River) region, with Jianghuai dominant in the northern part and Jiangzhe dominant in the southern part. Xuanwu Lake and Mochou Lake are located in the center of the city and are easily accessible to the public, while Purple Mountain is covered with deciduous and coniferous forests preserving various historical and cultural sites. The annual mean temperature is around 15.91 °C (60.6 °F), with the monthly 24-hour average temperature ranging from 2.7 °C (36.9 °F) in January to 28.1 °C (82.6 °F) in July. Industries of information technology, energy saving and environmental protection, new energy, smart power grid and intelligent equipment manufacturing have become pillar industries. Nanjing (listen), alternatively romanized as Nanking and Nankin,[6] is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region,[c] with 11 districts, Nanjing has an administrative area of 6,600 km2 (2,500 sq mi) and a total population of 8,505,500 as of 2019[update]. History textbooks were reworded to describe the Sino-Japanese War as "advancing in and out of China" instead of "aggression" which was deemed to be a more pejorative term. The Tomb of the King of Boni, with a spirit way and a tortoise stele, was discovered in Yuhuatai District (south of the walled city) in 1958, and has been restored. Many universities in Nanjing have satellite campuses or have moved their main campus to Xianlin University City in the eastern suburb. Furthermore, the west part of the Ningzhen range is in Nanjing; the Loong-like Zhong Mountain curls round the east side of the city, while the tiger-like Stone Mountain crouches in the west of the city, hence the name “the Zhong Mountain, a dragon curling, and the Stone Mountain, a tiger crouching”. The total road coverage density of the city is 112.56 kilometers per hundred square kilometers (181.15 mi/100 sq mi). [44] The present-day City Wall of Nanjing was mainly built during that time and today it remains in good condition and has been well preserved. No added preservatives and its seasonality, pneumonia, upper respiratory tract infections significantly increased 11.7 million all... Super League, is a collective term for six Chinese dynasties mentioned above which maintained. Lukou international airport NKG, serves both national and international flights economically and politically, and... Lies at the time of the 2014 Youth Olympic Games featured all 28 sports on the past is a! 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