Coping with chronic illness among the elderly: Maintaining self-esteem. Self and Society Essay 461 Words | 2 Pages. What effect did this have on your self-esteem and why? This 10-item scale is used to measure identification with students at the University of Maryland, but it could be modified to assess identification with any group. Personality And Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(8), 1023-1036. doi:10.1177/0146167208318067. Marsh, H. W., Kong, C.-K., & Hau, K-T. (2000). Malden Blackwell Publishing. These practices are tremendously important to know how humans act and interact with each other. In S. B. Manuck, R. Jennings, B. S. Rabin, & A. Baum (Eds. Psychotherapy:  Theory, Research, Practice, Training 46, 180-192. doi: 10.1037/a0016080, Yeung, K., & Martin, J. Social comparison and affiliation under threat: Effects on recovery from major surgery. When better-than-others compare upward: Choice of comparison and comparative evaluation as independent predictors of academic performance. This differential sensitivity to social dynamics between high and low self-monitors suggests that their self-esteem will be affected by different factors. top-rated free essay Sense of Self. When we compare positively with others and we feel that we are meeting our goals and living up to the expectations set by ourselves and others, we feel good about ourselves, enjoy the activity, and work harder at it. Snyder, C., Cheavens, J., & Sympson, S. (1997). Describe the concept of self-presentation and the various strategies we use to portray ourselves to others. Dr. Rajiv Jhangiani and Dr. Hammond Tarry, Principles of Social Psychology – 1st International Edition, Table 3.1 ,”Varieties of Social Identities,”, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:DSCN0602.JPG, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/deed.en, https://www.flickr.com/photos/50823081@N08/5551283305/, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Brazilian_Federal_Highway_Police.jpg, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/br/deed.en), http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mad_dog.jpg, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_domain, http://www.flickr.com/photos/61081643@N05/5564664701/, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/2.0/, Figure 3.14, “Self-Monitoring and Behavioral Mimicry,”, Next: Thinking Like a Social Psychologist about the Self, Principles of Social Psychology - 1st International Edition, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. The self-concept is a knowledge representation that contains knowledge about us, including our beliefs about our personality traits, physical characteristics, abilities, values, goals, and roles, as well as the knowledge that we exist as individuals. A big question in relation to self-presentation is the extent to which it is an honest versus more strategic, potentially dishonest enterprise. In contrast, low self-monitors may experience self-esteem boosts when they see themselves behaving consistently with their internal standards, and feel less self-worth when they feel they are not living up to them (Ickes, Holloway, Stinson, & Hoodenpyle, 2006). If you complete the measure for your own school, university, or college, the research evidence would suggest that you would agree mostly with the statements that indicate that you identify with the group. Self–other agreement and assumed similarity in neuroticism, extraversion, and trait affect: Distinguishing the effects of form and content. Psychology Of Popular Media Culture, 2(3), 161-170. doi:10.1037/a003311, Festinger, L. U. In particular, we use occasions when our social groups are successful in meeting their goals to fuel our self-worth. Describe how self-evaluation maintenance theory helps to explain how we react when other people’s behaviors threaten our sense of self. Mehdizadeh (2010), for example, found that narcissistic personality scores were positively correlated with the amount of daily logins on Facebook and the duration of each login. To this point, we have seen, among other things, that human beings have complex and well-developed self-concepts and that they generally attempt to view themselves positively. Social Forces, 81(3), 843-879. doi:10.1353/sof.2003.0048. White, K., & Lehman, D. R. (2005). This may be particularly so with people from our own families and culture. Because it is so important to be seen as competent and productive members of society, people naturally attempt to present themselves to others in a positive light. Galinsky and colleagues (2013) explored this use of self-labeling by members of oppressed groups to reclaim derogatory terms, including “queer” and “bitch,” used by dominant groups. Wiederhold (2012) found that, with some adolescents’ Facebook friends numbering in the hundreds or thousands, increasing numbers are moving to Twitter in order to reach a more selective audience. fan, or if you are an Australian, or if you are a Muslim, for example, then your membership in the group becomes part of what you are, and the membership often makes you feel good about yourself. Interestingly, people who are more narcissistic are more likely to use this tactic than people who are lower in these characteristics (Nicholls & Stukas, 2011). Self-Monitoring in Social Interaction: The Centrality of Self-Affect.Journal Of Personality, 74(3), 659-684. doi:10.1111/j.1467-6494.2006.00388.x, Jones, E. E., & Pittman, T. S. (1982). Self-Monitoring Without Awareness: Using Mimicry as a Nonconscious Affiliation Strategy.Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 85(6), 1170-1179. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.85.6.1170. Carter, L. (2012). People who talk more and louder and those who initiate more social interactions are afforded higher status. Shared reality: How social verification makes the subjective objective. We also use social comparison to help us determine our skills or abilities—how good we are at performing a task or doing a job, for example. There is strength in individual power, but with accumulated knowledge it allows humanity, as a whole, to thrive. In other cases, labels used by wider society to describe people negatively can be positively reclaimed by those being labeled. self through language and meaning, thus enabling the individual to take the role of other and (Stets and Burke p.2). We can also earn status by collecting expensive possessions such as fancy cars and big houses and by trying to associate with high-status others. Perhaps you’ve had the experience yourself of the changes in self-esteem that occur when you have moved into a new year in school, got a new job, or changed your circle of friends. Journal of Personality, 56(4), 685–707. In the face of others’ behaviors, we may enhance our self-esteem by “basking in the reflected glory” of our ingroups or of other people we know. Smart or not? An important individual-difference variable known as self-monitoring has been shown in many studies to have a major impact on self-presentation. (2009). Get more argumentative, persuasive self and society essay samples and other research papers after sing up Self-promotion can also be pursued in our online social behaviors. Identify a situation where you basked in the reflected glory of your ingroup’s behavior or peformance. For example, Baldwin and Holmes (1987) conducted two experiments to test the hypothesis that our self-concepts derive partly from the way we imagine that we would be perceived by significant others. It is to this question that we will now turn. There is yet another standard for women and men. The categories that they listed included ethnic and religious groups (e.g., Asian, Jewish), political affiliations (e.g., conservative, Democrat), occupations and hobbies (e.g., gardener, tennis player), personal relationships (e.g., husband, girlfriend), and marginalized groups (e.g., gay, homeless). In some cases, people may even resort to aggressive behavior, such as bullying, in attempts to improve their status (Baumeister, Smart, & Boden, 1996). This effect was more pronounced when they sat in front of a mirror (remember the earlier discussion of self-awareness theory). As with the women’s study, the men’s self-evaluations matched those they perceived that the people they were asked to visualize would have made, particularly when they were more self-aware. The outcome of Schachter’s research was clear: while only 33% of the women who were expecting mild shocks preferred to wait with others, 63% of the women expecting to get painful shocks wanted to wait with others. We are all labeled and stereotyped by our position in society. Tesser, A. Educational Psychology, 1, 1-12. People who overuse the exemplification or self-promotion strategies by boasting or bragging, particularly if that boasting does not appear to reflect their true characteristics, may end up being perceived as arrogant and even self-deluded (Wosinska, Dabul, Whetstone-Dion, & Cialdini, 1996). Human mobility and the interplay of traits, self-disclosure, and Facebook check-ins.Social Science Computer Review, 31(4), 437-457. As you can see in Table 3.1 ,”Varieties of Social Identities,” the students reported belonging to a wide variety of groups and claimed that many of these groups provided them with social identities. Her expertise in personal and professional development and ability to inspire others to make positive, permanent changes has made her a sought-after consultant and speaker to Fortune 500 corporations, universities, government and nonprofit agencies, and churches. However, we also engage in longer-term self-presentational projects, where we seek to build particular reputations with particular audiences. In our discussion of social comparisons, we have seen that who we compare ourselves to can affect how we feel about ourselves, for better or worse. The research on upward social comparisons to similar others would suggest the latter, and this has been demonstrated empirically. Toward a theory of strategic self-presentation in counseling and psychotherapy. Schachter concluded that this was not just because being around other people might reduce our anxiety but because we also use others who are in the same situation as we are to help us determine how to feel about things. Society’s identity and Your own selves identity. Posted on September 9, 2018. Data are from Cheng and Chartrand (2003). For example, a study in Taiwan conducted by Wang and Stefanone (2013) used survey methodology to investigate the relationship between personality traits, self-presentation and the use of check-ins on Facebook. Fox, J. D., & Stinnett, T. A. (R). Give examples of the use of upward and downward social comparison and their influences on social cognition and affect. I believe that in general, and in the beginning, the answer to this question, is that society is a human product. New York: Scribner’s. Self-presentational responses to success in the organization: The costs and benefits of modesty. Hope: An individual motive for social commerce. Answers to questions such as “What should I wear to the interview?” or “What kind of music should I have at my wedding?” are frequently determined at least in part by using the behavior of others as a basis of comparison. There is also evidence that self-promotional concerns are often a part of blogging behaviors, too. 28–84). Separating fact from fiction: An examination of deceptive self-presentation in online dating profiles. The first is distancing, where we redefine ourselves as less close to the person in question. (2002). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 1087-1098. Hence, the concept is crucial to any study of the dynamics of society and culture. For one, we are more likely to self-present in some situations than in others. Strauman, T. J., & Higgins, E. T. (1988). (2007). The self. (1996). Self-evaluation maintenance theory (Tesser, 1988) asserts that our self-esteem can be threatened when someone else outperforms us, particularly if that person is close to us and the performance domain is central to our self-concept. Men are more likely to present themselves in an assertive way, by speaking and interrupting others, by visually focusing on the other person when they are speaking, and by leaning their bodies into the conversation. 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